NEGARA DEMOKRASI INDONESIA

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03 Februari 2011, 17:43 | dibaca 207028 kali

Amzulian Rifai,SH.LLM.Ph.D
Dosen Ilmu Hukum Pascasarjana Universitas Sriwijaya
Hampir setiap negara di dunia apapun asasnya selalu mengaku sebagai negara demokrasi. Tak soal apakah senyatanya mereka itu aliran komunis, sosialis, kapitalis ataupun liberal. Indonesia, selama lebih dari tiga dekade bermain sandiwara dalam soal demokrasi ini. Kita mengaku negara yang bersifat demokratis, tapi Presidennya ingin berkuasa seumur hidup atau memaksa untuk dipilih berkali-kali. Kita mengaku negara berasaskan demokrasi, tetapi diharamkan berdiskusi tentang Undang-undang Dasar negeri sendiri. Kita juga main sandiwara yang tanpa malu mengaku menjalankan PEMILU dengan asas JURDIL (jujur dan adil), tapi senyatanya pemilu dijalankan dengan berbagai prilaku curang. Berbagai cara intimidasi dipraktekkan mulai dari yang halus dengan cara memberikan iming-iming hingga ke cara kasar dengan memaksa orang lain untuk memilih atau tidak memilih partai tertentu. Begitulah kita berhasil memainkan sandiwara negara demokrasi itu selama puluhan tahun [...]
Pada 5 Juli 2004 bangsa Indonesia telah membuktikan kepada dunia bahwa negara ini tidak lagi bersandiwara dalam soal demokrasi. Tengok saja masyarakat berbondong-bondong menuju TPS untuk memberikan suaranya. Ada pendapat bahwa diatas 90% pemilih Indonesia memberikan suaranya, suatu persentase yang amat tinggi. Di banyak negara yang tidak menganut sistem wajib memberikan suara, persentase rakyat menggunakan haknya tidak sebesar Indonesia. Akibatnya, negara seperti Australia mewajibkan rakyatnya untuk mengikuti PEMILU. Setiap warga negara Australia yang memenuhi persyaratan untuk mendaftar, antara lain telah berusia 18 tahun, wajib mendaftarkan diri sebagai calon pemilih paling lambat 21 hari setelah yang bersangkutan mencapai usia tersebut. Siapa saja yang melanggar ketentuan ini dikenakan hukuman denda. Disamping adanya kewajiban untuk mendaftarkan diri sebagai calon pemilih, setiap orang Australia juga harus menggunakan hak pilihnya dengan ancaman hukuman apabila tidak menggunakan hak pilih tersebut.
Sejarah tentang sandiwara demokrasi Indonesia memang terkenal kelam. Bagaimana tidak pemilu dilakukan tetapi harus dengan hasil sesuai dengan harapan pemerintah. Akibatnya, para petugas KPS “kebat-kebit” kalau-kalau di tempat mereka partai musuh pemerintah justru menang. Demikian juga lembaga pelaksana pemilu telah memiliki target bahwa partai pemerintah harus menang lagi. Mereka faham apa akibatnya bila partai penguasa itu kalah. Akibatnya, petugas menjalankan pekerjaan dengan tekanan sementara rakyat pemilih menggunakan hak suaranya dengan tingkat kecurigaan tinggi.
Sejarah tentang sandiwara demokrasi di Indonesia telah berlalu. Kini kita dapat dengan bangga mengatakan bahwa Indonesia telah benar-benar demokratis dalam menjalankan pemilihan umum. Paling tidak ada tiga alasan untuk menyatakan bahwa Indonesia adalah negara Demokrasi. Pertama, Indonesia telah memiliki lembaga pelaksana pemilu yang independent. Kedua, pemilihan umum berlangsung secara jujur dan adil. Ketiga, Indonesia memiliki suatu peradilan yang khusus menangani sengketa hasil pemilihan umum.
Salah satu permasalahan yang dihadapi oleh banyak negara untuk melaksanakan pemilihan umum secara “fair” adalah ketiadaan lembaga penyelenggaranya yang mendapat kepercayaan dari rakyat. Selama ini lembaga pelaksana pemilu di Indonesia tidak mendapat kepercayaan dari masyarakat sebagai institusi yang mampu berlaku netral dari kepentingan penguasa. Akibatnya, apapun hasil pemilu, masyarakat telah menanamkan sikap tidak menerima terlebih dahulu. Katakanlah para pelaksana telah bekerja maksimal, namun tetap saja dianggap tidak memiliki kredibilitas untuk lepas dari kontrol pemerintah. Buah reformasi kemudian melahirkan KPU (Komisi Pemilihan Umum) yang keanggotaannya dari berbagai unsur yang dipercaya mampu bertindak netral, lepas dari tunggangan pemerintah. Katakanlah masih banyak kekurangan KPU, terutama di daerah, namun paling tidak wajah pelaksana pemilu yang satu ini mulai mendapatkan kepercayaan yang besar dari masyarakat. Terbukti dengan relatif kecilnya sengketa masyarakat dengan KPU.
Alasan kedua untuk bangga menyatakan Indonesia sebagai negara demokrasi karena pemilu telah berlangsung dengan “fair,” sekalipun dengan berbagai keterbatasan. Padahal selama ini salah satu alasan kita main sandiwara demokrasi adalah karena Indonesia adalah negara dengan penduduk banyak yang membuat kita sulit menerapkan sistem pemilu yang demokratis. Prestasi demokratis Indonesia yang besar adalah kemampuan mengadakan pemilu secara langsung tiga kali dalam setahun. Bulan April 2004 kita memilih wakil-wakil rakyat yang kemudian dilanjutkan pada Juli 2004 memilih Presiden dan Wakilnya. Besar kemungkinan kita akan memberikan suara lagi pada pemilu putaran kedua pada tahun yang sama.
Dengan berpedoman pada Pasal 6A (Ayat 3 dan 4) UUD 1945 dinyatakan bahwa pasangan calon yang mendapat suara lebih dari 50 persen dari jumlah suara dalam pemilu, dengan sedikitnya 20 persen suara di tiap provinsi yang tersebar di lebih dari setengah jumlah provinsi di Indonesia, akan langsung dilantik menjadi Presiden dan Wakil Presiden. Dalam hal tidak ada yang memenuhi syarat itu, maka dua pasangan calon yang memperoleh suara terbanyak pertama dan kedua mengikuti putaran kedua yang akan berlangsung 20 September 2004. Sebagian besar pengamat percaya bahwa pemilu Presiden ini akan berlangsung dua tahapan.
Mungkin sulit mencari tandingan “negara Demokrasi Indonesia” yang melangsungkan pemilu akbar tiga kali dalam setahun. “Bangsa Indonesia patut diberikan selamat karena telah berhasil beralih dari negara otoriter ke negara demokrasi hanya dalam waktu 6 tahun…” demikian pujian dari mantan Presiden Amerika Serikat Jimmy Carter yang menjadi salah seorang pemantau pemilu 5 Juli lalu.
Pemilihan umum yang teratur dan fair saja tidak cukup, karena walau bagaimanapun akan tetap saja ada kemungkinan sengketa terhadap hasil pemilu. Oleh karenanya harus ada lembaga yang khusus menangani soal sengketa pemilu. Indonesia telah siap dengan itu. Oleh karenanya kita memiliki Mahkamah Konstitusi. Tidak banyak negara demokrasi di dunia ini yang mempunyai Mahkamah Konstitusi. Mahkamah ini dibentuk berdasarkan Undang-Undang Nomor 24 Tahun 2003 tentang Mahkamah Konstitusi. Mahkamah tersebut berwenang mengadili pada tingkat pertama dan terakhir yang putusannya bersifat final untuk memutus perselisihan tentang hasil pemilihan umum.
Dengan jumlah pemilih yang mendekati angka 147 juta, dan memiliki lebih dari 5.000 kecamatan, belum lagi apabila kondisi geografis dan demografis yang diperhitungkan. Secara geografis, mungkin banyak orang “geleng-geleng” kepala karena banyak TPS yang hanya dapat dijangkau dengan menggunakan angkutan udara atau angkutan sungai. Keterbatasan SDM, dana dan fasilitas sebetulnya harus pula dikedepankan untuk melengkapi rumitnya pelaksanaan demokrasi berupa pemilu di Indonesia. Begitulah, nampaknya sudah cukup alasan untuk membuktikan Indonesia sebagai negara demokratis. Tidak ada lagi alasan dunia barat menyatakan kita sebagai negara otoriter, negara yang pemilunya sandiwara belaka. Justru sepantasnya negara lain belajar dari kita.  Kini tak lagi sungkan kita menyebut “Negara Demokrasi Indonesia.”

Tagged:  Indonesia, Demokrasi

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